2.Harker and Keltner (2001) examined whether emotional well-being in later life could be predicted from the facial

expressions of 141 women in their college yearbook photos. The predictor variable of greatest interest was the “positivity of emotional expression” in the college yearbook photo. They also had these photographs rated on physical attractiveness. They contacted the same women for follow-up psychological assessments at age 52 (and at other ages; data not shown here). Here are the correlations of these two predictors (based on ratings of the yearbook photo) with several of their self-reported social and emotional outcomes at age 52:

                                                                                          In College Photo                                                              

At Age 52                             Physical Attractiveness              Positivity of Facial Expression

Negative emotionally                           .04                                                  -2.7

Nurturance                                         -.06                                                  .22

Well-being                                            .03                                                  .27

a.Which of the six correlations above are statistically significant (i) if you test each correlation using α = .05, two-tailed, and (ii) if you set EWα = .05 and use Bonferroni-corrected tests?

b.How would you interpret their results?

c.Can you make any causal inferences from this study? Give reasons.

d.Would it be appropriate for the researchers to generalize these findings to other groups, such as men?

e.What additional information would be available to you if you were able to see the scatter plots for these variables?

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