1. choose an article which is included in Geobiology. write a 500 word summary about the topic.   Include 3 other independent references related to your article and include information from these references  

Geobiology is the research of interactions between Earth’s physical habitat and the biosphere. A topic in geobiology I chose to focus on was the ecosystem. The ecosystem is an “organizational unit at any scale composed of biological and physical components that function in a balanced, interrelated fashion.” (Grotzinger, 2014) The article I found focuses on climate change for certain ocean animals. The article talks about how Bull sharks and bottlenose dolphins are going North as the ocean becomes warmer. It also talks about how the migration of marine predators could change food webs in their newly adopted ecosystems. About 70 false killler whales and 200 bottlenose dolphins were located off the Western coast of Canada’s Vancouver Island. In North Carolina on the Atlantic coast bull sharks were spotted, which is kind of unusual and usually are found in Florida more.

A marine ecologist, Luke Halpin is apart of a Wildlife research team in Vancouver. They are researching why these ocean animals are migrating more North. Results have proposed that more and more of these aquatic species will migrate outside of their classic areas. There is a climate change that is increasing ocean temperatures. “In just the last century, average sea temperatures have risen every decade by 0.07 degrees Celsius, though temperature changes can vary widely by location.” (Wilkinson, 2018) They also learned that the eastern North Pacific ocean had a 3 year warming period that happened in 2013-2016. This made for ideal water for bottlenose dolphins. In North Carolina Bull sharks would experience a “comfort zone” which makes it easier for them to reproduce. The migration changes by these three marine specifies is very problematic and can affect the predator-prey relationships.

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/bull-sharks-and-dolphins-move-farther-north-oceans-warm (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Another article I found on this topic touches on a little more on bull sharks migrations. Research was done by Stephen Kajiura, a professor of Biological Sciences at Florida Atlantic University. His study would point out that shark attendance in Southern Florida was inversely matched with the water’s temperature. The warmer the water gets the fewer sharks that would appear. He would also learn that most sharks don’t migrate all the way South anymore. Kajiura explains that marine animals are ectotherms. These animals are unable to control their internal temperature and as an alternative have to use their external environment instead.

https://www.thedailybeast.com/sharks-are-creeping-into-the-northeast-because-of-climate-change (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

The next article I found would focus on analyzing coastal shark catch data from the North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries. This survey would take place on the Pamlico Sound, it would help distinguish shark habitat in the state’s estuaries. The data would display a transition of Bull sharks only appearing occasionally to it becoming a regular presence. The survey would show a huge jump in Bull shark appearances in 2012. In the end the model would show Bull shark would travel to Pamlico sound because of their salinity levels and the temperatures.

http://www.southernfriedscience.com/is-a-changing-environment-bringing-baby-bull-sharks-to-north-carolina/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

My last article I found focuses on bottlenose dolphins and what factors influence their seasonal migrations. A Master’s student, Anna Taylor from the University of Georgia would tracks the goings and comings of dolphins from South Carolina and Georgia’s coasts. They would use photographic identification of each dolphins fins. It is a technique used to study many cetaceans like dolphins who have dorsal fins. When animals get older their dorsal fins start to get frayed and chipped. Scientists can use this information to identify certain dolphins. She would pair up with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Georgia Dolphin Ecology Program. They would do boat-based surveys where they photographed dolphins and their fins. “They then used photo analysis software to analyze each dolphin’s fin shape and pattern, which told them when and where each dolphin (nearly 1000 uniquely-identified individuals) went over the course of their study.” (Taylor, 2016) Putting this together with the dolphin movement data, they would discover that seasonal movements, or migrations, are because of water temperature; while seasonal abundance was best clarified by water salinity. All in all, this was a very interesting yet really sad topic to learn about. The migration of these marine animals will have serious consequences because of the predator to prey relationships.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160422115635.htm (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.


1. John, Grotzinger (2014). Understanding Earth: Seventh edition. W.H. Freeman and Company: Macmillan Higher Education

2.Wilkinson, A. (2018, May 21). Bull sharks and bottlenose dolphins are moving north as the ocean warms. Retrieved from https://www.sciencenews.org/article/bull-sharks-and-dolphins-move-farther-north-oceans-warm (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

3. https://www.thedailybeast.com/sharks-are-creeping-into-the-northeast-because-of-climate-change (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

4. New study investigates the environmental cues dolphins use to migrate on the Atlantic coast of North America. (2016, April 22). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160422115635.htm

2. read articles and write1 paragraph review for each article 

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