9. Define the following terms, providing explanation, description, examples and diagrams wherever needed (4 Points):

· Mercalli Scale;

· Tuff & pumice;

· Mohorovicic Discontinuity;

· Mohr’s Scale of Hardness;

· Barrier Islands;

Essay Questions: (Answer all: 10 points each).

Describe, explain and elaborate on the following topics with examples and diagrams wherever appropriate.

1. What is Geology? Provide a brief synopsis of at least six (6) branches of geology that you had a chance to study in this course, giving examples and explanation of what that branch is specialized for.

2. China started experiencing a higher frequency of Earthquakes when they built dams on several of their rivers. Why do you think that is the case and can you tectonically and structurally explain that?

3. Is there a correlation between the process of ‘Fracking’ and the higher frequency of Earthquakes that the state of Oklahoma is experiencing since fracking began there? Explain the fracking process and how it could cause EQs to form anywhere!!

4. Explain the hydrologic cycle on Earth. Provide examples and explain how each of the components of this cycle gets affected by other members and how they can cause problems.

5. Describe the process of formation of the Alps Mountain formation, with the tectonic forces that formed them, as well as their petrological characteristics;

6. Write about EITHER one geological event/process/activity OR one geologist (scientist) that has contributed to the field in a significant. Write about the event/process/discovery.

7. Explain in-depth the three theories of plate movements on Earth with their pros and cons: Seafloor spreading, Continental Drift Theory and Plate Tectonic Theory. In your opinion, are these three theories related to each other, if so, why and how? Explain!

8. Explain, define, describe with examples the following:

· Type of metamorphism and kinds of rocks produced by them;

· Laws of Uniformitarianism, Big Bang, Superposition;

· Physical properties of material (color, fracture, texture, cleavage, hardness, specific gravity, luster, etc.)

· Provide a sketch and describe the properties of the internal layers of Earth;

· Compare and contrast the landforms formed by wind, water and ice. Provide examples, description and diagrams of the landforms.


(Work will not be accepted without them)

………………………………………..Part 2………………………………………….

Choose one of the global cybersecurity challenges identified in this week’s readings. Prepare a 3 to 5 paragraph briefing statement in which you discuss how cooperation and collaboration between countries can be used to address / overcome one specific challenge (e.g. cybercrime, cyber-attacks, cyber-terrorism, data protection, education & training of cybersecurity professionals, protection of intellectual property rights, etc.)

Post your briefing statement as a reply to this topic. Provide in-text citations and references for 3 or more authoritative sources. Put the reference list at the end of your posting.

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