ES 110 – Earth & Astronomical Science

Homework #6

PART ONE

Answer the following questions and submit via Blackboard in the correct file format as outlined in the syllabus. No other formats will be accepted. Also, please put your name on your homework.

Chapter 13 – The Ocean

1)Lecture Notes Review Question (2 pt.)

Describe TWO theories for the origin of the oceans on Earth: (hint: review over lecture notes!!)

2) Textbook Review Question (2 pt.)

Which seafloor resource is presently most valuable? Which non energy seafloor resource is most valuable?

Chapter 16 – The Atmosphere

3) Textbook/Lecture Notes Review Question (2pt.)

The atmosphere is divided vertically into four layers on the basis of temperature. List the names of these layers in order (from lowest to highest) AND describe how temperature changes within each layer.

4) Lecture Notes Review Question (2pts)

A) What is climate and climate change?

B) Climate change is closely linked to green house gas emission. What major human cause is correlated with global average temperature increase on Earth? (e.g. what have we been doing to cause global warming?)

5)**Very Important Question!** Textbook/Lecture Notes Review Question (3pt)

Why do we experience seasons? Why do we experience warmer temperatures in the summer and cooler temperatures in the winter?

Chapter 22 – Touring Our Solar System

6) Textbook Review Question (2 pt.)

By what specific criteria are the planets placed into either the Jovian (gas giants) or Terrestrial (rocky planets) group?

7) Textbook Review Question (2 pt.)

Why are impact craters more common on the moon than on Earth, even though the Moon is a much smaller target and has a weaker gravitational field? Use those thinking caps!

8) Lecture Notes Review Question (2 pt)

Differentiate between the following solar bodies: meteoroid, meteor, and meteorite.

9) Textbook Review Question (2pt)

What physical evidence (visually or other) on Mars suggests that Mars may have had an active hydrologic cycle in the past?

10) Earth Science & Astronomy Working Together (6pts)

Now that you have learned more about the Planets in our Solar System, I would like you to take a moment to think about the specific ways in which our knowledge of Earth Science has aided scientists in learning about the Planets in our Solar System.

Describe, in detail, specific ways in which the topics we have covered in Earth Science are used to understand the Planets in our Solar System. Make sure to give 2 specific examples of how Earth Science topics are used to understand the Planets in our Solar System.

PART TWO

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Question 1

1. ______ are found both on Mars and Earth.

Heavily cratered landscapes preserved from early in the planets’ histories
Erosional features related to flowing water
Oceans full of water
Answer 1 and 2: erosional features related to flowing water AND active tectonic plates
Extremely active tectonic plates

Question 2

1. The Great Red Spot on the planet Jupiter is

a type of storm in Jupiter’s atmosphere that can last for a few months at a time before disappearing.
a large, long-lived, high-pressure storm in Jupiter’s atmosphere.
clouds of dust-laden gas upwelling above the top of a massive mountain or a volcano on the planet’s surface.
the colored polar cap of Jupiter.

Question 3

1. Many people get confused by the difference between asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites.  In this jumbled sentence choose the correct term describing these astronomical objects: (sorry for the long runon sentence)

Term 1

are made of water-ice and frozen crystals of  methane, ammonia, carbon and originate in the outer reaches of the Solar System, where as Term 2 are composed mainly of rock and rubble, but if either of these (or pieces) enter the Earth’s atmosphere we call it a Term 3, or a shooting star and if they strike the surface of the Earth they are called a Term 4

1.

Question 4

1. Match the Planet name with its corresponding description and the “earth sphere” the planet is LACKING!

Mercury
Jupiter

1.

Neptune

Mars

A.This planet is heavily cratered and is very small in diameter.  It has extreme daytime and nighttime temperatures.  It is very close to the Sun.The main “Earth Spheres” missing on this planet are: Biosphere, Hydrosphere, & AtmosphereB.This is a Jovian planet with a lot of atmospheric storms!  This planet often displays aurora and has a strong magnetic field.  It is the largest of the gas giants.The main “Earth Spheres” missing on this planet are: Biosphere and Geosphere.C.A terrestrial Planet with contains seasons similar to Earth, due to it’s axial tilt!  The seasons on this planet are longer than on Earth.  This planet contains remnant of Huge volcanoes and has polar ice caps. The main “Earth Spheres” missing on this planet are: Biosphere.D.This planet is Blue/Green in color and is a gas giant!  It is covered in a thick atmosphere, often riddled with storms that look like white ovals.  This Planet has an axis of rotation that is similar to Earth’s, rotating relatively perpendicular to the orbital plane of motion around the Sun.The main “Earth Spheres” missing on this planet are: Biosphere & Geosphere.

Question 5

1. Which planet in our solar system has the lowest average density?

Saturn
Earth
Jupiter
Uranus

Question 6

1. The atmosphere of Venus mainly consists of the gas molecule ____________, causing the planet to experience a runaway greenhouse effect resulting in the surface being hotter than the surface of Mercury!  Earth does not want to become Venus, so we are trying to cut back from producing these greenhouse gases.

Question 7

1. Why do we experience Seasons on Earth?  And 

Why is it warmer in the Summer and colder in the Winter in the Northern hemisphere?

We experience Seasons on Earth due to the 45 degree tilt of the Earth’s rotational axis.  The Earth is tilted toward to the Sun in summer and away from the Sun in winter.  This allows for the length of day to vary, shorter daylight hours in the summer and longer daylight hours in the winter.  The second factor making summers warmer is that when the Earth is tilted away from the Sun, the surface of the Earth receives more direct solar radiation, making it warmer. 
We experience Seasons on Earth due to the 23.5 degree tilt of the Earth’s rotational axis and the fact that the earth gets closer and further from the Sun throughout the year.  This allows for the length of day to vary, longer daylight hours in the summer and shorter daylight hours in the winter, which is one factor causing summers to be warmer than winters.  The second factor making summers warmer is that the Earth is physically at lot closer to the Sun in the summer (Northern Hemisphere), making it warmer.  In the winter the Earth is much further from the Sun so the Earth is cooler.
We experience Seasons on Earth due to the fact that the earth gets closer and further from the Sun throughout the year.  The Earth is physically closer to the Sun in the summer, making it warmer.  In the winter the Earth is further from the Sun so the Earth is cooler.
We experience Seasons on Earth due to the 23.5 degree tilt of the Earth’s rotational axis.  The Earth is tilted toward to the Sun in summer and away from the Sun in winter.  This allows for the length of day to vary: longer daylight hours in the summer and shorter daylight hours in the winter, which is one factor causing summers to be warmer than winters.  The second factor making summers warmer is that when the Earth is tilted toward Sun, the surface of the Earth receives more direct solar radiation, making it warmer.  In the winter we receive more indirect solar radiation, which heats Earth’s surface less. 

Question 8

1. According to the condensation model of the solar system:

A.Rocks and iron condense furthest from the Sun
B.Rocks and iron don’t last in the Solar System formation
C.Ices and gases condense condense furthest from the Sun because that is where they originated
D.Ices and gases condense condense furthest from the Sun because they evaporate close to the Sun

Question 9

1. Our solar system seems to have formed about how long ago?

5 billion years
5 million years
50,000 years
13.5 billion years

Question 10

1. Match the moons of Jupiter with their correct description

EuropaGanymede
Callisto
Io

1.

A.Surface contains two terrains, one densly cratered and the other linear groves perhaps formed from recent tectonic activity.  This would indicate a convecting, metallic core.B.Moon is old as indicated by its heavily cratered surface.  Furthest moon from Jupiter.C.Moon has active volcanoes and its interior is most likely warmed by tidal effects from Jupiter gravitationally tugging on the moon.  Most active volcanic body in the Solar System!D.Moon has an interior of rock and a surface of frozen water.  Subterranean oceans are most likely warmed by tidal effects from Jupiter gravitationally tugging on the moon.

Question 11

1. Mars has polar ice caps composed of Carbon Dioxide and Water ice.

True

False

Question 12

1. Which one of the terrestrial planets has a surface landscape similar to that of the older areas of the Moon?

Mercury
Uranus
Venus
Neptune

Question 13

1. Ozone is concentrated in which layer of the atmosphere?   ____________.

troposphere
ionosphere
stratosphere
mesosphere

Question 14

1. The most probable theory for the solar system’s formation is

gas and dust clouds condensed to form the Sun, while planets formed later within a nebular disk.
an encounter, in which a passing star ripped off material from the Sun to form the planets.
condensation of a slowly contracting nebula of hot gas, first into planets in the outer region, then into the Sun at the center.
a capture theory in which the Sun captured objects moving through space which then became the planets.

Question 15

1. Which of the following statements is true about the equinoxes?

They occur in June and December
Days and nights are equal in length everywhere
The Sun’s vertical rays are striking either the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn
The length of daylight at the Arctic and Antarctic Circles is 24 hours

Question 16

1. In our solar system, which of the following planets is not a member of the terrestrial group?

Venus
Mercury
Jupiter
Mars

Question 17

1. By what means do most scientists believe the water that fills our large oceans came to reside on Earth?  In other words, where did all the water contained in oceans originate from?

10% from Polar Ice caps on Mars, 10% from green algae, and 80% from water contained in rocks
90% from comets, meteoroids, and asteroids, 10% from volatiles and outgassing
10% from comets, meteoroids, and asteroids, 90% from volatiles and outgassing
80% from green algae and 20% from volatiles and outgassing

Question 18

1. The only planet in the solar system whose axis of rotation lies close to its equatorial plane (plane of orbit around the sun) is _______.

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