Hemophilia is an inherited sex-linked genetic blood disorder in which clotting factors (VIII or IX,depending on the variant of the disorder) are reduced or absent. It doesn’t result in heavierbleeding, but in longer bleeding, since the clotting factors cannot adequately stanch theflow of blood. Depending on the severity and treatment, the lifespan of a hemophiliac canrange from adolescence to old age. The gene is located on the X-chromosome. Sincemales only have one X copy, any occurrence of the mutation in males results inhaemophilia. Females, however, have two copies of the X-chromosome, and the diseaseonly shows up when both copies of the X-chromosome have the mutation. What can wedo with this information? Let’s start by writing the probability of having the mutation alleleas p=0.0002. The probability that a female would acquire the disease is the probability ofhaving the mutation allele on one X-chromosome and the mutation allele on the second X-chromosome. Mathematically, the probability of a female having the disease (H) is H=p*p,which is H=0.00000004. The following questions require you to use this biologicalknowledge to calculate the probability of the disease. Use G to denote a normal allele, andg to denote the mutation allele.1) Prince Albert did not have haemophilia, which we can denote as G. QueenVictoria was a carrier but did not have the disease herself, which we candenote as Gg. Given this, determine the probability that a child of theirswould be a boy and be a haemophiliac. (Hint: you will need to first find theprobability of being a boy and then the probability that the boy will be ahaemophiliac).2) Queen Victoria had nine sons children. Three of her nine children eitherhad hemophilia (Leopold) or were carriers (Alice and Beatrice). What’s theprobability that one of her four sons would have hemophilia? (Hint: don’tinclude the probability of being male in this calculation, and make sure to set itup as (g,G,G,G) or (G,g,G,G) or (G,G,g,G) or (G,G,G,g))

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