The Wolf in the Southwest: The Making of an Endangered Species3711α = 0.01.(a) What is the level of significance?

State the null and alternate hypotheses.

H0: p = 0.5; H1: p > 0.5

H0: p = 0.5; H1: p < 0.5

H0: p = 0.5; H1: p ≠ 0.5

H0: p < 0.5; H1: p = 0.5

(b) What sampling distribution will you use?

The Student’s t, since np < 5 and nq < 5.

The Student’s t, since np > 5 and nq > 5.

The standard normal, since np < 5 and nq < 5.

The standard normal, since np > 5 and nq > 5.

What is the value of the sample test statistic? (Round your answer to two decimal places.)

(c) Find the P-value of the test statistic. (Round your answer to four decimal places.)

Sketch the sampling distribution and show the area corresponding to the P-value.

(d) Based on your answers in parts (a) to (c), will you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Are the data statistically significant at level α?

At the α = 0.01 level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.

At the α = 0.01 level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.

At the α = 0.01 level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are statistically significant.

At the α = 0.01 level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude the data are not statistically significant.

(e) Interpret your conclusion in the context of the application.

There is sufficient evidence at the 1% level to conclude that the true proportion of female wolves in the region is less than 0.5.

There is insufficient evidence at the 1% level to conclude that the true proportion of female wolves in the region is less than 0.5.