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High-Performance Work System
The term “high performance work system” is used to describe a set of management practices that involves the creation of a conducive environment where the organization’s employees have higher responsibilities and involvement (Dessier, 2015). Primarily, a High Performance Work System is an amalgamation of concise work structure that is developed to capture employee input and the human resource practices for reaching the key organizational goals. Moreover, the High Performance Work System involves a range of processes that are aimed at maximizing employees’ knowledge base, commitment, skills, and flexibility in a rapidly changing workplace environment (Dessler, 2015).
First, the organization’s human resource practice that increases the opportunities for employees to actively participate in decision making promotes a high-performance work system (Fu, Flood, Bosak, Morris, & O’Regan, 2013). Indeed, employees feel appreciated and valued when their suggestions and input are recognized in the organization. The second human resource practice that promotes a high performance work system is employee training (Fu et al., 2013). Employee training equips them with the necessary skills oriented to tackling current and emerging challenges and using these challenges as opportunities for both self-development and organization development. The third human resource practice that promotes a high performance work system is incentives (Fu et al., 2013). Additionally, a high performance work system adequately adopts current and emerging technological trends to create a competitive edge (Fu et al., 2013).
Importance of Cultural Difference in Formulating and Executing HR Policies
Cultural differences are perceived to be very powerful in a sense that they can either make or break a company. A company that fails to adequately assimilate a cultural difference in its human resource department may become subject to expensive litigation lawsuits, loss of customers, and ultimately the loss of talented employees. Correspondingly, an organization that develops an integrated culture can position itself for higher outcomes. Formulating and implementing an inclusive human resource policy provides the organization with a strategic advantage and sustainability (Fu & Kamenou, 2011). More specifically, this cultural difference in the human resource policy makes the organization unique since the policies therein cannot be copied by other organizations.
A culturally inclusive HR practice tries to align the organization’s practice to fit people from different cultural backgrounds (Fu & Kamenou, 2011). Essentially, culture becomes a strategic management practice for higher performance output. Furthermore, cultural diversity assists an organization with determining a balance between internal and external strategic elements. The company’s mission and vision statement are reflected by the cultural dynamism in the organization, thereby creating a more responsive customer base (Fu & Kamenou, 2011). For instance, a company’s human resource manager may develop customized policies when venturing into a new area with slightly diverse cultural aspects. Customization makes employees and customers in that destination to feel that the company is responsive to their needs and understands the business practice in that region. Therefore, the hiring process in such a region will seek dynamism for improved market coverage.
The term “talent management” is defined as the science and art of utilizing strategic human resource planning approaches to improve the value of a business in order to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives (Dessler, 2015). Talent management is primarily focused on performance improvement and optimization of one’s potential (Dessler, 2015).
Talent management can be used to acquire, improve, and retain the best employees. First, the evaluation system adopted helps the company to identify and isolate talented employees from the rest of the employee body (Dessler, 2015). This form of identification provides a suitable platform for the organization to optimize on employees’ potentials, thereby improving the overall organizational performance. Moreover, such improvements motivate employees to remain loyal to the organization. Secondly, talent management is strongly aligned with competency-based management (Dessler, 2015). Employees with specific skills are provided with position-specific competency tasks to help them improve on their talents and skill sets (Dessler, 2015). Also, such position-specific competency tasks require the intricate use of skills, personal traits, and experiences to overcome the prevailing challenges. In this case, talent management allows organizations to pick projects that are suitable for their talented employees for sustained productivity (Dessler, 2015). Furthermore, talented employees are able to increase production while reducing the cost overheads since they have the necessary skills to increase productivity. Thus, a company can reduce its workforce through strategic talent management practice.
Six Steps of Conducting Job Analysis
The first step in conducting a job analysis is collecting all the necessary information about that job (Proctor, Powell, & McMillen, 2013). Most of that information can be found through an evaluation of an employee’s job performance material, which may include occupational studies, position description, and performance standards among others. The second step involves listing all the tasks (Proctor, Powell, & McMillen, 2013). A list of all the competencies and tasks that come with a specific job are identified and listed and correlated with the information collected in step one above.
The third step involves the identification of all critical tasks that come with a specific job category (Proctor, Powell, & McMillen, 2013). Chiefly, this identification focuses on how each task is classified in terms of its importance and subject matter expertise requirement. The fourth step involves the identification of critical competencies and a classification of the time of entry into the system through data collection (Proctor, Powell, & McMillen, 2013). Some critical competencies are needed at the point of entry while others are needed later on. The fifth step involves the development of a job description (Proctor, Powell, & McMillen, 2013). The description is based on the information collected in step four above, which succinctly describes the prominent characteristics of a given job. The final step involves the development of new job specifications, which includes a minimum requirement for every job category in the organization (Proctor, Powell, & McMillen, 2013).
In conclusion, the information on job analysis is used to develop a performance appraisal system for each job category. Correpsondingly, the human resource manager uses this information to identify the specific skills required for each position.
Dessler, G. (2015). Human resource management (14th ed.) [VitalSource version]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781323081716
Fu, N., Flood, P. C., Bosak, J., Morris, T., & O’Regan, P. (2013). How do high performance work systems influence organizational innovation in professional service firms? Employee Relations 37(2), 209-231. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-10-2013-0155
Fu, Y. & Kamenou, N. (2011). The impact of Chinese cultural values on human resource policies and practices within transnational corporations in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 22(16), 3270-3289. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2011.586868
Proctor, E. K., Powell, B. J. & McMillen, J. C. (2013). Implementation Strategies: Recommendations for Specifying and reporting. Implementation Science 8(139). doi:10.1186/1748-5908-8-139